Constituted 20 July 1940 as the 5th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop, assigned to the 5th Division.  Activated 10 August 1940 at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana.

Activated 10 August 1940 at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana.

Reorganized and re-designated 1 October 1943 as the 5th Reconnaissance Troop, Mechanized.

Reorganized and re-designated 4 March 1946 as the 5th Mechanized Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop.

Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky.

Re-designated 6 July 1948 as the 5th Reconnaissance Company and activated at Fort Jackson, South Carolina.

Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation , Pennsylvania.

Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military  Reservation, Pennsylvania.

Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany.

Inactivated 1 June 1957 at Fort Ord, California.

Converted and re-designated 26 January 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 5th Aviation Battalion.

Battalion activated 19 February 1962 at Fort Carson, Colorado (HHC, 5th Aviation Battalion, reorganized and re-designated 12 February 1964 as HHD, 5th Aviation Battalion; Company A inactivated 25 April 1966 in Vietnam).

Battalion (less Company A) inactivated 24 June 1967 at Fort Carson, Colorado HHD, 5th Aviation Battalion, re-designated 21 July 1975 as the Aviation Company, 5th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Polk, Louisiana.

5th Aviation Battalion (Provisional) activated December 1977 at Fort Polk, Louisiana.

Reorganized and re-designated 1 September 1982 as HHC, 5th Aviation Battalion.

Relieved 16 November 1987 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division; concurrently reorganized and re-designated as the 5th Aviation, a parent regiment under the United States Army Regimental System, with Headquarters at Fort Polk, Louisiana.

5th Aviation Battalion was activated on 1 October 2017 at Fort Polk, Louisiana and designated as Aviation Battalion, JRTC and Fort Polk.